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FAQ - Cultural operations

FAQ Cultural Operations

  1. How much depth the field should be ploughed for planting sugarcane?
  2. About 80% of the sugarcane roots go up to a depth 60 cm. Hence deep ploughing of sugarcane fields is necessary. Initially one or two deep ploughings with tractor drawn disc plough or mould board plough or animal drawn mould board plough has to be done at least to a depth of 30 cm. This has to be followed by ploughing with other light tillage implements.

  3. What is the optimum row spacing for planting sugarcane?
  4. Optimum spacing depends on the nature of the variety and fertility level of the soil. For a shy tillering variety in poor soil, closer row spacing of 60 cm is adequate. For a shy tillering variety in fertile soil, medium row spacing of 75 cm is good. For a profusely tillering variety in poor soil also, medium row spacing of 75 cm is needed. For a profusely tillering variety in fertile soil, a row spacing of 90 cm is ideal. However for mechanical cultivation, wider spacing of 150 cm is recommended and only profusely tillering varieties have to be used in such cases.

  5. What are the qualities of good planting material of sugarcane?
  6. Disease and pest free setts collected from nursery crop at the age of 6 – 8 months with undamaged buds constitute good planting material of sugarcane.

  7. Out of single budded, two budded and three budded setts, which one is better for commercial planting of sugarcane?
  8. Single bud setts give higher germination of around 90%. In two budded setts, only around 60% of the buds planted germinate. In three budded setts, the germination is still lower and only around 50% of the buds planted germinate. The germinants from single budded setts do not withstand adverse environment whereas the germinants from two and three budded setts withstand adverse environments better. Hence it is recommended to use two budded setts.

  9. What are the herbicides suitable for controlling weeds in sugarcane?
  10. Atrazine (2.0 kg a.i./ha)and metribuzin (1.0 kg a.i./ha) are suitable for pre-emergence weed control. These will have to be applied around third day after planting. 2,4-D (1.0 kg a.i./ha) is suitable for post emergence weed control and it can be applied whenever broad leaf weeds are in active growth stage.

FAQ- more....

  1. What are the preferred planting methods for sugarcane?
The different planting methods adopted for sugarcane in tropical India are:
  • Conventional planting method, where the ridges and furrows are spaced at 90 cm and irrigation is given through the furrows.
  • Paired row planting where a pair of rows is drawn at 60 cm with the distance between two pairs being 120 cm. This method is suitable for drip irrigation and inter-cropping.
  • Wide row planting, where the rows are spaced at 150 cm with dual row planting (two rows of setts are planted at a distance of about 30 cm) in a single furrow. This facilitates mechanization of cane cultivation and inter-cropping.
  • Pit method of planting, where pits of 90cm diameter and 45 cm depth are opened at 1.5m x 1.5m spacing. About 17-26 setts are planted in each pit, radially similar to the spokes in a wheel after filling about half the pit with a mixture of top soil and Farm Yard Manure (FYM)
  • Deep trench method of planting, which is suitable for early drought and late water-logged conditions. Deep trenches are opened to a depth of 45 cm with 60 cm width. The spacing between trenches is 180 cm. Two-budded setts are planted in the trench in 2 rows with 30 cm between rows
  1. What are the negative effects of lodging of cane? How the lodging of cane could be reduced?
Lodging reduces the effective leaf area of the crop and reduces net photosynthesis and consequently the yield. Sometimes, the lodged canes break and dry up which can not be used for milling. Adoption of non lodging varieties, wider spacing and heavy earthing up, and de-trashing and propping at 8 months age would help to reduce lodging of the crop.

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