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LICENSING OF SUGARCANE VARIETIES TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Co 86032 (Nayana)

Field view of sugarcane variety Co 86032

Sugarcane, an important cash crop of India, supports the livelihood of 5 million farmers, 15 million agricultural laborers, five lakh skilled and semi-skilled workers. Sugarcane has enjoyed as a major crop in the tropical India especially in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh and Interior Andhra Pradesh. Co 312, Co 419, Co 6304, Co 740 etc. were the prominent varieties which made sugarcane a major crop and sugar industry a major agro-industry in the region. CoC 671 was introduced in the region that created sugarcane cultivation remunerative for the factory though its yield in the ratoon crop was less. Saline and drought regions in the states also faced problems in sugarcane cultivation. Also there was demand from farmers for varieties capable for multiratoonability. Flowering was another problem which decided choice of a right variety. Also varieties suited for harvest up to 14 months of age were demand as cane harvest sometimes got delayed due to several problems including weather fluctuations, labour availability for harvest. All these kept varietal evolution directed to develop varieties suitable to all these situations.

Since the release of Co 6304 (hailed as a second wonder variety for tropics) in 1970 and Co 740 (very suitable for Maharashtra) in 1949, there was stagnation in sugar recovery and sugarcane yield under varied agroclimatic conditions of Peninsular zone. Crossing of two high sucrose varieties as parents Co 62198 and CoC 671 and subsequent selection yielded Co 86032. Ever since the variety completed AICRP trials in 1994, the potential of the variety started reaching the beneficiaries as this variety was a near complete pack of several advantages as mentioned below.

Characteristics of Co 86032
  1. High yield
  2. Retaining high quality up to 14-15 months after planting
  3. Responds to normal cultural practices and responds to high fertilizer doses to yield proportionately higher yield
  4. A good ratooner. There are farmers taking more than 18 ratoons with Co 86032
  5. It is suitable under different field spacing, including normal (90 cm) and wide (120 to 150 cm) rows.
  6. The variety is field tolerant to red rot and is staying resistant to red rot even after 25 years of field cultivation
  7. It is moderately resistant to smut disease
  8. It is moderately resistant to wilt disease
  9. It is moderately tolerant to drought
  10. The variety is moderately tolerant to salinity
  11. A non-flowering variety at many places/ shy flowering with late flowering nature under Coimbatore conditions
  12. A near perfect variety suited to all agroclimatic conditions of Peninsular zone of India

Varietal performance over years
  1. Co 86032 was identified for the tropics during 1994 and started spreading during 1996.
  2. Following the wide spread occurrence of red rot in CoC 671, the area under this variety declined, which is reflected in the low recovery during 1990s.
  3. Thereafter the recovery improved to 9.92% during 2004, with the establishment of Co 86032 as the predominant variety in the state.
  4. Analysis of sugarcane productivity indicated that the yield level was maintained at about 105 t/ha throughout the period from 2000-01 to 2013-14 (except drought years-2003, 2004 and 2013).It was corresponding with the cultivation of the Co 86032 in Tamil Nadu.
  5. The ratoon yield is as equivalent with plant crop yield.
  6. The variety has recorded highest yield (324 t/ha)
  7. Higher yield (more than 200 t/ha) was reported by the many sugar mills in the state during the year 2009-2012.
  8. Cultivated about 0.85 million ha in the tropical zone of India.
  9. 80 % of cane area in Tamil Nadu is occupied by this variety. The area occupied by the variety during 2008-09 to 2013-14 is given below.
  10. The average yield of the was improved 5-10/ha in different agro climatic zones of the Tamil Nadu state
  11. Sugar recovery was improved by 1 unit in Tamil Nadu sugar mills
  12. the profit of farmers increased by about Rs. `33,000/ha (at 2018 prices). It helped sugar mills to operate in their full capacity and provided regular employment to people engaged in cane production and processing.
  13. The economic impact of this variety is in the range of over Rs. 20,354.6 crore by 2015-16 in terms of net additional value since large scale adoption of the variety in the tropical India
This variety has been hailed as the wonder variety of the millennium for the tropics

Co 0238

Field view of sugarcane variety Co 0238

Sugarcane, an important cash crop of India, supports the livelihood of 35 million farmers, 15 million agricultural labourers, five lakh skilled and semi-skilled workers. The sub-tropical region of India, was known for its low sugarcane production, productivity and sugar recovery. The low sugarcane production is due to low productivity (50.53 t/ha in the sub-tropical States vs. 71.67 t/ha in tropical States) and low sugar output is due to low sugar recovery (8.8% vs. 9.9%) both of which could be attributed to extremes of weather prevailing in the region. From April to June, the sub-tropical weather is very hot and dry and from December to January the weather is very cold touching zero degree and often combined with frost. Therefore, the active growth of sugarcane is restricted to hardly 4 to 5 months, resulting in poor stalk yield and low sugar recovery. Sugarcane variety which can withstand the vagaries of sub-tropical climate was the felt need. Another reason for the low sugar recovery in subtropical India was the lack of early maturing varieties. Cane crushing in the subtropical states starts generally from October-November. The popular varieties of this region like CoS 767, CoSe 92423, CoS 8436,

CoS 88230 do not attain sucrose maturity until mid-season of crushing (Dec-Jan). The high sugared early maturing variety CoJ 64, released during 1976, has made significant contribution in terms of improvement in sugar recovery (8.53 to 10.14%) and sugar yield (4.58 to 5.17 t/ha) in Punjab. Seeing the success in Punjab, it was introduced in Haryana and subsequently it spread to western UP. But the glory of CoJ 64 has diminished gradually in the region owing to its susceptibility to red rot.

Therefore, to realize a better sugar recovery of around 11-12% a need for an early maturing variety comparable or better than CoJ 64 in yield and juice quality and combined with red rot resistant gene(s) was felt. Perusal of literature, however, revealed that high yielding varieties in cultivation were mostly poor in sugar content and vice versa. The negative relationship between the sugar recovery and cane yield, thus appeared to be the major bottleneck in sugarcane breeding. The challenge in 1990 was to evolve a high sugared, high yielding and early maturing red rot resistant variety (as a substitute for CoJ 64) befit to the sub-tropical weather by breaking the negative linkage between high yield and high sugar.

Based on many studies conducted in tropical and subtropical regions (Coimbatore and Karnal) it was concluded (by the PI) that early selection during October in seedling ratoon nursery is more efficient in identifying better quality clones for early season crushing. Hence, suitable changes were made in selection procedure at ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre, Karnal. (i) It was decided to practice selection in seedling ratoon nursery instead of old practice of selecting in seedling (plant) nursery. (ii) Seedlings in ratoon nursery were scored for NMC, stalk diameter, stalk length and HR Brix during October. (iii) Selection during early in the season, i.e. in October instead of February-March as was practiced earlier. Adoption of above modified selection procedure has led to the development and release of six early maturing high sugared varieties namely, Co 98014, Co 0118, Co 0237, Co 0238, Co 0239, Co 05009 and 6 midlate varieties Co 0124, Co 05011, Co 06034, Co 09022, Co 12029 and Co 13035 for commercial cultivation in the North West Zone (NWZ) of India through CVRC. These varieties have occupied more than 2.76 million hectare area in North India during 2019-20 season, earned credit to the Centre besides generating revenue of Rs. 3-5 lakhs per annum by way of sale of the seed of these varieties.

Of the above varieties Co 0238 is increasingly popular among farmers and sugar mills not only across the zone for which these were released but also outside the zone in North India due to their higher yield and higher sugar recovery in comparison to the existing standards / varieties. The impact of Co 0238 on cane yield and sugar recovery per cent in sub-tropical states was assessed during 2014-15 to 2018-19 with 2013-14 as base year. Area under this variety increased from 10 per cent (2.70 lakh ha) in 2014-15 to 66.13 per cent (23.04 lakh ha) in 2018-19. The average cane yield increased by 20 t/ha (i.e. from 60.0 t/ha in 2013-14 to 80 t/ha in 2018-19) and average sugar recovery improved by 2.08 units (i.e. from 9.21 per cent in 2013-14 to 11.29 per cent in 2018-19) in the five states.

Co 0118 (Karan 2)

Sugarcane, an important cash crop of India, supports the livelihood of 35 million farmers, 15 million agricultural labourers, five lakh skilled and semi-skilled workers. The sub-tropical region of India, was known for its low sugarcane production, productivity and sugar recovery. The low sugarcane production is due to low productivity (50.53 t/ha in the sub-tropical States vs. 71.67 t/ha in tropical States) and low sugar output is due to low sugar recovery (8.8% vs. 9.9%) both of which could be attributed to extremes of weather prevailing in the region. From April to June, the sub-tropical weather is very hot and dry and from December to January the weather is very cold touching zero degree and often combined with frost. Therefore, the active growth of sugarcane is restricted to hardly 4 to 5 months, resulting in poor stalk yield and low sugar recovery. Sugarcane variety which can withstand the vagaries of sub-tropical climate was the felt need. Another reason for the low sugar recovery in subtropical India was the lack of early maturing varieties. Cane crushing in the subtropical states starts generally from October-November. The popular varieties of this region like CoS 767, CoSe 92423, CoS 8436, CoS 88230 etc. do not attain sucrose maturity until mid-season of crushing (Dec-Jan). The high sugared early maturing variety CoJ 64, released during 1976, has made significant contribution in terms of improvement in sugar recovery (8.53 to 10.14%) and sugar yield (4.58 to 5.17 t/ha) in Punjab. Seeing the success in Punjab, it was introduced in Haryana and subsequently it spread to western UP. But the glory of CoJ 64 has diminished gradually in the region owing to its susceptibility to red rot.

Therefore, to realize a better sugar recovery of around 11-12% a need for an early maturing variety comparable or better than CoJ 64 in yield and juice quality and combined with red rot resistant gene(s) was felt. Perusal of literature, however, revealed that high yielding varieties in cultivation were mostly poor in sugar content and vice versa. The negative relationship between the sugar recovery and cane yield, thus appeared to be the major bottleneck in sugarcane breeding. The challenge in 1990 was to evolve a high sugared, high yielding and early maturing red rot resistant variety (as a substitute for CoJ 64) befit to the sub-tropical weather by breaking the negative linkage between high yield and high sugar.

Based on many studies conducted in tropical and subtropical regions (Coimbatore and Karnal) it was concluded (by the PI) that early selection during October in seedling ratoon nursery is more efficient in identifying better quality clones for early season crushing. Hence, suitable changes were made in selection procedure at ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre, Karnal. (i) It was decided to practice selection in seedling ratoon nursery instead of old practice of selecting in seedling (plant) nursery. (ii) Seedlings in ratoon nursery were scored for NMC, stalk diameter, stalk length and HR Brix during October. (iii) Selection during early in the season, i.e. in October instead of February-March as was practiced earlier.

Adoption of above modified selection procedure has led to the development and release of six early maturing high sugared varieties namely, Co 98014, Co 0118, Co 0237, Co 0238, Co 0239, Co 05009 and 6 midlate varieties Co 0124, Co 05011, Co 06034, Co 09022, Co 12029 and Co 13035 for commercial cultivation in the North West Zone (NWZ) of India through CVRC. These varieties have occupied more than 2.76 million hectare area in North India during 2019-20 season, earned credit to the Centre besides generating revenue of Rs. 3-5 lakhs per annum by way of sale of the seed of these varieties.

Co 0118, though a better variety for juice quality than the varieties Co 0238 but was less preferred by farmers due to comparatively lesser cane yield. Hence, rate of increase in area is slow. However, its area is steadily on the rise since 2016 onwards. Most of the sugar mills are recommending Co 0118 as the second variety in their areas. Its area is expected to increase in subtropical region in years to come.



LICENSING OF SUGARCANE VARIETIES TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Co 11015 (Atulya)

Field view of sugarcane variety Co 11015

Sugarcane, an important cash crop of India, supports the livelihood of 5 million farmers, 15 million agricultural laborers, five lakh skilled and semi-skilled workers. Sugarcane has enjoyed as a major crop in the tropical India especially in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh, Telengana and interior Andhra Pradesh. Since 2000 AD, Co 86032 with many advantages including high sugar yield, amenability to varying agronomic practices and longer field life, abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, sugarcane cultivation is crippled in the Southern states especially in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu due to repeated monsoon failures. Tamil Nadu’s average cane productivity above 100 t/ha was the highest in the country, which deteriorated year after year in the recent past. The area and production of sugarcane in Tamil Nadu was 1,65,000 ha cane area and about 16.208 lakhtonnes of production in 2018-19. Reviving the past glory of sugarcane in the state is a real challenge. The need of the hour is amalgamation of recent technologies in agriculture including wide row planting, drip irrigation on a high yielding sucrose rich variety which can mature 2-4 months to steadily make sugarcane agriculture competitive to increase the profitability of the farmers and sugar factories.

Identification of an early maturing, sucrose rich variety combining high yield amenable to modern agronomic practices is the need of the hour to save the sinking sugar industry of the state of Tamil Nadu. In this context, the new variety Co 11015 was identified which has clear superiority in sugar content and has the ability to mature quickly for harvesting from 8 months onwards. This clone was tested along with 19 other promising clones in nine sugar factory locations in Tamil Nadu under a joint initiative between ICAR Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore and South India Sugar Mills Association, Chennai.The trial was conducted following the norms of vareital testing and was conducted for two plant and one ratoon crops during 2017-19 period.

Ever since this clone completed testing in first plant crop, the testing sugar factories realized its potential and took to fast seed multiplication. The trial was concluded with Co 11015 emerging as the best clones with clear superiority for sucrose content, cane yield and sugar yield. The clone is being tested through AICRP and is now in the final year of testing. There are clear indications of its superiority in the locations in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Telengana. The variety was notified for release in Tamil Nadu in January, 2020 and since then the potential of the variety has started reaching the beneficiaries. During February, 2021, the total area covered by this variety in Tamil Nadu is 9570 ha

Characteristics of Co 11015
  1. A fast growing variety
  2. High yielding and high quality short duration sugarcane variety suitable for Tamil Nadu for normal and drought prone areas
  3. Recorded 10.23 per cent improvement in yield (142.72 t ha-1) over the check Co 86032 (129.48 t ha-1) in trial conducted across Tamil Nadu.
  4. Improvement of 20.13 per cent recorded for sugar yield (20.16 t ha-1) compared to the check Co 86032 (16.78 t ha-1) in trial conducted across Tamil Nadu.
  5. Resistant (nodal method) and moderately susceptible (plug method) and field tolerant to red rot strains prevalent in Tamil Nadu.
  6. This is a short duration maturing clone with >17 % sucrose at 240 days thereby sugar recovery during the early crushing season can be improved. Further, the juice quality improves upto 12 months, hence can be harvested from 8 to 12 months.
  7. This clone fits well in realizing three crops in two years, hence highly suitable to regions with water scarcity.
  8. This variety is also suitable for special season harvest as it recorded an improvement of 8.98, 6.93 and 9.15 per cent sucrose over Co 86032 at 240, 300 and 360 days respectively in July planted trials.
  9. Performs well in wide rows ( above 4 feet spacing)
  10. Co 11015 has the ideal plant characters of height (> 250 cm) with erect plant type, excellent field stand with medium thick canes.
  11. It is a good ratooner and registered 9.61 per cent, 18.57 per cent and 8.62 per cent increase in cane yield, sugar yield and sucrose per cent respectively over Co 86032.
  12. This clone responds well with single bud settling planting under wider row spacing and hence suitable for SSI technology
  13. Co 11015 produces A1 quality jaggery of golden yellow colour.
Solution description- in terms of varietal performance

The new variety has an edge over the other varieties as this is a short duration variety which can be harvested from 8 months onwards. The juice sucrose content attains above 18% and juice purity above 85% as a mark of the maturity of the cane. The variety has an advantage over the available varieties for its extra early character

Co 11015 was identified for the state of Tamil Nadu during 2019 and started spreading in the same year.

Co 91010 (Dhanush)

Sugarcane, an important cash crop of India, supports the livelihood of 5 million farmers, 15 million agricultural laborers, five lakh skilled and semi-skilled workers. Sugarcane has enjoyed as a major crop in the tropical India especially in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh, Telengana and interior Andhra Pradesh. Northern Karnataka and Maharashtra are the high productivity and high sugar recovery zone in the country and specific varietal requirements are needed for the region to realize high yield and sugar recovery. Though Co 86032 was a wonder variety for tropical India since 2000 AD, this variety was not well suited to the region. The sugar industries in North Karnataka were in need of high yielding and high quality varieties with drought tolerance, and with deep rooting nature and adopted varieties like CoM 88121, Co 8371, Co 8014, and Co 8013, which did not fulfill the regional demand.

Identification of a suitable high yielding, sucrose rich variety with drought tolerance is the requirement for the high productive regions of Peninsular zone. Co 91010 was a variety suiting to the needs of the region with its tall erect, non lodging canes, deep root system and high yield and sucrose content under water deficit situations. These characters made this a suitable variety to the North Karnataka and has occupied large areas. This variety also showed its merit in Striga infected fields, making it an ideal variety for the region .

The area under Co 91010 in selected sugar factories of North Karnataka

This variety, hence, has potential in places with similar climatic conditions, especially in dry tropical areas.

Sugarcane True seed (Fluff/Fuzz)

Seed fluff and Defuzzed seed

True seed harvested from sugarcane flowers commonly known as fluff or fuzz’ is the basic material for selection and development of new improved varieties The natural climatic conditions around Coimbatore were found to be most ideal for profuse flowering and seed setting without any cost on artificial equipment.

Ever since its inception in 1912, sustained breeding programmes helped for evolving better commercial clones for the entire country through Coimbatore canes which extended throughout the globe for commercial or breeding use. The strong breeding work of the institute has resulted in steady increase of sugarcane area, production, productivity and sugar recovery in the country and offers a great opportunity for commercialization of sugarcane seed fluff.

A revival of demand for proven Coimbatore canes as well as botanical seed i.e. fluff/fuzz has arisen from various sugarcane growing countries especially African countries. The exchange of true seed offers means to obtain genes of choice. Sharing the true seed (fluff/ fuzz) from crosses done between parents of choice at ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore with countries in dire need of sugarcane fluff opens new avenues in sugarcane research abroad as well as revenue generation. As envisaged by global bodies like FAO/IPGRI (1993) and sugarcane breeding stations in various countries either fluff or defuzzed seed can become a marketable input. The movement of seed might provide a safer, more extensive and rapid alternative to vegetative material. Our well-organized breeding programmes would open new vistas for marketing of true seed.

Seed Technology Laboratory, ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore has got the proven techniques and technologies for handling sugarcane true seed viz., seed processing, testing for germination, seed storage, packing and transport. Defuzzing is practiced to improve the handling of fluff in sowing. Disinfection becomes easier. Through reduction of weight and principally volume the storage and transport becomes easier.1000 seed weight ranges from 0.5 to 2.5 g.

The golden opportunity for generating income/resources from marketing our true seed globally through our well-organized breeding programmes at ICAR-SBI, Coimbatore would open new vistas. The resurgence of plea for proven Coimbatore canes as well as botanical seed i.e., fluff/fuzz from many sugarcane growing countries especially from Africa can be fulfilled utilizing our well-knit breeding programmes and tailor-made seed technological solutions. Now ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore has got the proven techniques and technologies for handling sugarcane true seed viz., seed processing, testing for germination, seed storage as well as seed marketing through transport.

As envisaged by global bodies like FAO/IBGRI and sugarcane breeding stations in various countries either fluff or defuzzed seed is a marketable input giving impetus to sugarcane breeding programmes in many countries where huge demand for sugarcane true seed exists for initiating variety development plans.

Seed Technology Laboratory, ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore has got the proven techniques and technologies for handling sugarcane true seed viz.seed processing, testing for germination, seed storage, packing and transport. Defuzzed seed at minus -200C could maintain good initial germinability for more than five years. On an average One gram of seed fluff can have 1500 to 2000 seeds. And One gram of defuzzed seed consists of 3000-4000 seed.

Licensing

The institutes / companies / firms / others, interested to take these varieties or fluff / true seed or any sugarcane varieties must Email to:

The CEO,Agrinnovate India Limited, G-2, A Block, NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi- 110012, INDIA. Phone:+91-011-25842122, Fax:+91-011-25842124, Email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., and a copy to

(1) The Director, ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore - 641 007. Off: 0422 - 2472621 (Ext: 203), 0422-2473971, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and

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2021-11-27 17:38