Recent Achievements - Entomology

New Findings

Leaf miner occurrence in sugarcane

  • A new species of leaf miner Aphanisticus aeneus Kerremans (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has been observed to occur on Saccharum spp. Observations on the feeding pattern, biology and infestation levels in different Saccharum spp. have been made.
  • Grubs mine the leaves on the lower surface just above the epidermis forming a linear channel. Another leaf miner species causing slightly different symptoms has also been observed on commercial cultivars of sugarcane. The larva produces small blotches on the leaf unlike the long serpentine mines caused by A. aeneus.
  • The insect is also a new record belonging to Aphanisticus genus but its species identity needs to be ascertained. Both the leaf miner species have been observed to be of sporadic occurrence at negligible levels. Regular monitoring is being done to determine their pest status.

Host plant resistance

Host plant resistance

  • The possibility of some of the sugarcane plant phenolic acids acting as phagostimulants/deterrents to internode borer has been observed in HPLC analysis of samples from healthy stem tissues of sugarcane hybrids with low/high internode borer susceptibility.
  • A practical pot culture protocol for evaluating genotypes against white grubs has been developed. Several exotic clones have been screened and rated against this pest using this method.
  • Several exotic clones have also been rated for multiple pest reaction under field conditions.
  • In laboratory studies on comparative biology of shoot borer on resistant Erianthus clones and the hybrid Co 86032, larval period was longer and weight was lower in the former than in the latter.

Biological Control

Biological control

  • The first scarabaeid (Coleoptera) specific Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin from India has been reported. The new Bt holotype crystal toxin has been designated as Cry8Sa1 by the International Committee on Bt toxin nomenclature. The crystal toxin isolated from the strain Bt62 occurring in Tamil Nadu has been found to be toxic to all the instars of Holotrichia serrata with the potential for exploitation in the management of other agriculturally important species of scarabaeids.
  • In further studies on Bt, three of the 143 isolates identified from 50 soil samples tested positive for cry 1gene. When cloned and sequenced, these genes were found to have 98% homology with lepidopteran active cry1 Ac gene.
  • Endophytism of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in sugarcane was confirmed through PCR-based approach using specific SCAR primers. DNA extracted from plants treated with 10 isolates of the fungus showed amplification in the isolates NBAII-11, NBAII-23, NBAII-47, NBAII-58 and NBAII-61. The lack of amplicon in the other treatments including control confirmed endophytic colonization of these isolates.
  • Two superior isolates of Beauveria bassiana, viz. NBAII- 61 and NBAII-58 were identified against internode borer in laboratory virulence studies. In a pot culture study with isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and two other fungi Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria brongniartii, persistence was the highest for shoot borer isolate of M. anisopliae (SbMa) up to three months after inoculation.
  • The fungal toxins beauvercin, patulin and destruxin reduced germination and produced abnormalities during germ tube development of three EPF, namely Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae and some other soil fungi.
  • A field-release station was developed to dispense ready-to-emerge C. flavipes cocoons against internode borer and validated in the field. In augmentation studies, release of the parasitoid enhanced parasitism rates.

Insect chemical ecology/Insecticide toxicology

Insect chemical ecology

  • Sugarcane plants treated with geranyl acetate to induce resistance against internode borer were found to be attractive to the braconid parasitoid Cotesia flavipes plants suggesting the chemical’s secondary role as an attractant.
  • Heneicosane and its isomer n-heneicosane, known parasitoid attractants, have been detected in the volatiles collected from internode borer infested sugarcane plants indicating possible chemical mimicry to attract the parasitoid of this borer.

Insecticide toxicology

  • A rapid analytical method has been standardized to determine the residues of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in soil. The persistence and dissipation kinetics of the insecticide applied as soil drench in sandy loam soils of sugarcane ecosystem were also studied by employing this analytical method.
  • A novel, simple, sensitive and rapid analytical method has been standardized for simultaneous determination of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane juice for the first time.

RECENT NEWS

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''भा.कृ.अनु.प - गन्ना प्रजनन संस्थान क्षेत्रीय केन्द्र , करनाल - कार्यवाही विवरण।/ सारांश ”



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