Development of varieties is the central area of research since the inception of the institute in 1912. It was the first of its kind to start work on breeding varieties for sub-tropical conditions. The first commercially successful inter-specific hybrid in the world, Co 205, a hybrid between cultivated sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum and the wild grass S. spontaneum became popular in Punjab province during 1920s. Varieties such as Co 213, Co 214, Co 281, Co 285, Co 290, Co 312, etc., bred by this institute revamped sugar industry in India. From 1926, the Institute started developing varieties for tropical India as well.
The varieties developed later by this Institute such as Co 419, Co 453, Co 740, Co 997, Co 1148, Co 62175, Co 6304 and Co 6806 are some of the very successful varieties spread across the country. The variety Co 86032 notified for release in the year 2000 occupies most of the sugarcane area in tropical India at present. Recently released sub-tropical varieties such as Co 0118 and Co 0238 are gaining popularity among the farmers of Haryana, Punjab, Western UP, Uttarakhand and Bihar. Thus varieties evolved by the Institute have elevated the status of the nation from a sugar importer to the largest manufacturer of sugar in the world today. The varieties evolved at this Institute are being grown all over India and is being used as breeding stocks in 26 other countries in the world as well
The following Table lists varieties that are popular or gaining good recognition in Tropical and Sub-tropical India during different periods of time.
This link provides profiles of recently released varieties of sugarcane in different parts of India
|1920||Co 205, Co 210, Co 213, Co 214, Co 224, Co 281, Co 290|
|1930||Co 205, Co 213, Co 223, Co 244, Co 281, Co 285, Co 290, Co 312, Co 313|
|1940||Co 213, Co 312, Co 313, Co 331, Co 356, Co 453|
|1950||Co 312, Co 313, Co 453, Co 951|
|1960||Co 312, Co 975, Co 1107, Co 1148|
|1970||Co 312, Co 1148, Co 1158|
|1980||Co 1148, Co 1158, Co 7717, Co 7314|
|1990||Co 1148, Co 89003|
|2000||Co 89003, Co 98014, Co 0238, Co 0118|
|1930||Co 213, Co 243, Co 281, Co 290, Co 313|
|1940||Co 213, Co 419|
|1950||Co 419, Co 449, Co 527|
|1960||Co 419, Co 527, Co 658, Co 740, Co 853, Co 975, Co 997|
|1970||Co 419, Co 527, Co 658, Co 740, Co 975, Co 997, Co 853, Co 62175, Co 6304, Co 6806, Co 6415|
|1980||Co 419, Co 740, Co 975, Co 62175,Co 6304, Co 6907, Co 7219|
|1990||Co 740, Co 62175, Co 6304, Co 7219, Co 7704, Co 7527, Co 7508, Co 7504, Co 8011, Co 8014, Co 8021, Co 8208, Co 8362, Co 8371, Co 8338, Co 85004, Co 86032, Co 85019, Co 86249, Co 97009|
|2000||Co 86032, Co 99004, Co 94012, Co 2001-13, Co 2001-15|
This link provides profiles of recently released varieties of sugarcane in Peninsular India.
Co 99004 (Damodar): A new sugarcane variety for peninsular zone<
Co 99004, a midlate maturing variety was notified for release in Peninsular zone. This variety has excellent field habits like erectness, early vigorous growth, dark green foliage, tall canes, without spines on leaf sheath or splits on the rind, and 14% fibre in cane. Though the clone is moderate in tillering, high percentage of the tillers is productive, with about 2.5 kg single cane weight and cane length of about 3 metres. Erect crop stand is an added advantage making this variety ideal for mechanical harvesting.
Two new midlate maturing clones Co 2001-13 and Co 2001-15 were found to be superior based on the trials conducted at different locations of Peninsular zone under All India Coordinated Research Project on Sugarcane (2006-2008). Both the varieties performed well across the zone for commercial cane sugar (CCS) yield and cane yield in comparison with the presently popular variety Co 86032. These varieties which are resistant to red rot have good ratoonability and field stand.
Co 0238 (Karan-4): A new early maturing variety for North West Zone.Co 0238 is a selection from the progeny of the cross CoLk 8102 x Co 775. This clone was identified from Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre, Karnal. It had medium thick green yellow canes with cylindrical internodes, pentagonal buds, deltoid auricle and shallow bud groove. The clone is free from splits, spines on leaf sheath, pith. Bud cushion is absent. In comparison to the major check CoJ 64, it showed about 20 %, 16 % and 0.50 % improvement in cane yield, sugar yield and sucrose % in juice, respectively. The fibre % is about 13.05 %. It is good winter ratooner, tolerant to drought and water logging conditions. The jaggery is of A1 quality with light yellow colour. This clone is resistance to the prevalent races of red rot pathogen. The clone has the potential to occupy larger area under sub-tropical India.
Co 0118 (Karan 2): A new early maturing variety for North West Zone.Co 0118 is a selection from the progeny of the cross Co 8347 x Co 86011. This clone was identified from seedling ratoon nursery raised at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre, Karnal. The cane yield and sugar yield of Co 0118 was higher than that of CoJ 64. It is tolerant to drought and water lodging conditions. It had medium thick, green-yellow canes with obconoidal internodes, rectangular buds, lanceolate auricle on both sides (generally long on one side), shallow bud groove and weak spines on leaf sheath. The clone is free from splits, pith. Bud cushion is absent. The fibre % is about 12.78 %. The jaggery is of A1 quality with light yellow colour. This clone is moderately resistant (MR) to the prevalent races of red rot.
Co 0232 : An early maturing variety for North Eastern and North central Zone
Co 0232, an early maturing, water logging tolerant and red rot resistant clone is a selection from the cross CoLk 8102 x Co 87267 through hybridization and clonal selection. This clone is suitable for cultivation in the North Central and North East zones comprising of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and North Eastern states. This clone was identified from Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Research Centre, Motipur (presently under IISR, Lucknow) during 2002. Under water logging conditions Co 0232 performed better over the best standard CoSe 95422 with 7.63 % higher cane yield, 11.55 % higher CCS t/ha and 0.77 % higher sucrose content. It is also tolerant to early drought and top borer.
Co 0233: A midlate maturing variety for North Eastern and North central Zone
Co 0233, was identified from Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Research Centre, Motipur (presently under IISR, Lucknow). It is a selection from the cross CoLk 8102 x Co 775 and is suitable for cultivation in the North Central and North East zones. The cane and sugar yield of Co 0233 was 21.11 % and 24.62% higher over best standard CoSe 92423. This variety is midlate maturing, high yielding, tolerant to early drought, water logging and top borer and resistant to red rot.
Co 0314 – an early maturing clone for Peninsular zone.
Co 0314 named as Shyamala was evolved through hybridization and selection involving two high yielding and high quality proven parents viz., Co 7201 x Co 86011. It is an early maturing clone identified as Co cane in 2003 from Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore suitable for Peninsular Zone. Besides being a high yielding and good quality clone, it is moderately resistant to red rot and resistant to smut. It possesses A1 quality jaggery and 13.93 % fibre. The clone has impressive, excellent field stand, erectness, early vigorous growth, dark green foliage, tall canes growing up to 3.0m without splits.
Co 0209– an early maturing clone for Peninsular zone
The early maturing clone Co 0209 with the parentage Co 8353 x Co 86011, performed well across the peninsular zone for cane yield and sugar yield in comparison with CoC 671 and Co 85004. Besides being a high yielding and good quality clone, it is resistant to red rot and smut also. It possesses A1 quality jaggery and 13.93 % fibre. The clone has excellent field stand, erectness, early vigorous growth, dark green foliage, tall canes growing up to 3.0 m and without spines on the sheath.